Monday, November 5, 2018

Direct and indirect speech- part 1

Narration change ( Direct and indirect narration)

Original speechhere is a tape recorded version of an actual conversation between two persons near a tea stall:
Narration change ( Direct and indirect narration)

Narration change ( Direct and indirect narration)



How do you like this tea-stall , Mohan? Oh, I like it very much. I am surprised Rakesh that even at this end of the road there is such a comfortable nook. Then we can sit here and chat over a cup of tea. Gladly, but remember that I have no money with me, for I forgot to bring my money-bag . Ha- ha- ha, don't worry, I have money enough with me to pay for both of us.

This represents the original speech. Who is speaking which portion, is not separately indicated here. We have to guess it. On the tape, however, that two voices are distinct and their difference can be noticed simply by hearing. 
When we put this original speech into writing, it takes one of the following forms:
     
1) Dramatic form
2) Narrative form( Direct narration) 
3) Narrative form( Indirect narration


1. Dramatic form:

In The dramatic form, the original speech is slightly edited. The name of the speaker is added to each speech. Otherwise, the speech remains as it is. Thus :

Rakesh: How do you like this tea stall, Mohan? 

Mohan: oh, I like it very much! I am surprised, Rakesh, that even at the end of the road there is such a comfortable nook. 

Rakesh: Then we can sit here and chat over a cup of tea. 

Mohan: Gladly. But remember that I have no money with me, for I forgot to bring my money bag. 

Rakesh: HA- ha -ha . Don't worry. I have money enough with me to pay for both of us.


This form is called dramatic form because it is used in the dramas. This is closest to the original speech and makes very little change of the original speech. We may cite an example from an actual play:

[ Shakespeare's Merchant of Venice( Act iv, sc. 1): a dialogue between portia and shy lock]

Portia : I pray you, let me look upon  the bond.

Shylock:  Here 'tis, most, reverend doctor, here it is.

Portia: shylock, there's thrice thy money offer'd there.

Shylock:An oath , an oath, I have an oath in heaven. Shall I lay perjury upon my soul? No not for Venice. 




This looks very much like the conversation between Rakesh and Mohan written above.


2)Narrative Form : Direct Narration

In the Narrative form, the original speaker or hearer is not present. The speech is not delivered personally by the speaker himself not does it appear to be so. The speech or conversation is conveyed by another person who introduces the speaker of each speech. When the narration is direct, it has two parts
---- one part reporting the speech, the other part being the reported speech or the exact speech quoted by the narrator. The reported speech is put within inverted commas or quotation marks( called 'quotes'). The tape recorded conversation between Rakesh and Mohan in the direct narration will be as follows:
'' How do you like this tea- stall, Mohan?'' Asked Rakesh.   '' Oh, I  like it very much, '' replied Mohan, '' I am surprised, Rakesh, that even at the end of the road there is such a comfortable nook. '' '' Then, '' said Rakesh,'' We can sit here and chat over a cup of tea. '' Gladly, '' replied Mohan, '' but remember I have no money with me, for I forgot to bring my money- bag. '' At this Rakesh burst into laughter and said, '' Don't worry. '' I have money enough with me to pay for both of us. ''


It should be noted that in the Direct Form, asked, replied, said etc. are the' introducing' verbs. The 'reported' or 'quoted' speech follows these verbs.

Punctuation indirect narration: Regarding Punctuation in the Direct Narration, the following points should be noted:

1) The actual words of the speaker are put within quotation marks or inverted commas. The quotation comes after a comma following the introducing verb. The first word in the quotation begins with a capital letter:
He Said , '' My father is back home. ''
2) The introductory part may also be placed after the quotation followed by a comma:
'' He is not the person I want, '' said the constable.
If the sentence asks a question, no comma will be added, the Note of Interrogation will be enough. Thus - - '' How do you like this tea-stall, Mohan? '' asked Rakesh.
3) If the speech quoted  is a Complex Sentence on a long sentence, it may be put in two parts on two sides of the introductory part:
'' Gladly, '' replied Mohan, '' but remember I have no money with me. ''




Notice that a comma is used at the end of the first part and again before the beginning of the second part. The common printing style is to place the comma or full stop before, and not after, the end part of the  quotation marks. This is only to make the article look nice.


3)Narrative Form : Indirect Narration
The tape- recorded conversation between Rakesh and Mohan may also be written in the indirect Form of narration. In the indirect form, no portion of speech is directly reproduced, and therefore no quotation marks are used. The conversation in the Indirect Narration will be as follows:

Rakesh asked( his friend) Mohan how he like that( particular) tea stall. Mohan said appreciatively that he liked it very much. Addressing Rakesh he expressed his surprise that even at that end of the road there was such a comfortable nook . Rakesh suggested to Mohan that they could then sit down and chat over a cup of tea. Mohan readily agreed but added that he had no money with him, for he had forgotten to bring his money- bag. Hearing this Rakesh burst into laughter and asked Mohan not to worry since he had money enough with him to pay for both of them.

In the Indirect Form of Narration the verbs asked, replied, Said , etc are called reporting verbs and the reported speech follows these verbs. In the Indirect Narration, the conversation is reported by a third person. He delivers the full sense but does not use the actual words of the conversation. The speech is reported indirectly, that is, in the reporter's and not in the original speaker's own language, so no portion is quoted, and no quotation marks are used.

Punctuation in Indirect Narration : Regarding punctuation in the Indirect Narration, the following points should be noted:
1) No inverted commas or quotation marks are used in the Indirect Narration. Thus the quotation marks in the Direct Narration  are removed in the indirect narration:

Direct : Rakesh said,''Don't worry, I have money enough with me.''

Indirect : Rakesh asked him not to worry since he( Rakesh) had money enough with him.

2) No comma is used after the reporting verb:
Direct : He said, ''My father is back home.''

Indirect : He said that his father was back home.

3) No Note of Interrogation or Question Mark Is used in the Indirect Narration, only the fullstop is used:

Direct : Rakesh asked Mohan,'' How do you like this tea- stall? "

Indirect : Rakesh asked Mohan how he like that  tea-stall.

Direct : Mohan said,'' Oh, I like it very much! ''

Indirect : Mohan said appreciatively that he liked it very much.

NOTE : Grammatically, a quotation is to be treated as a Noun- equivalent:
Rahim said this. Here 'this' is the object of the word 'said'
Similarly:  Rahim said, '' I do not play cricket. '' Here the sentence I do not play cricket is a Noun- equivalent, being the Object of the Verb said. In the indirect form, Rahim said that he did not play cricket, the clause in underlined - italics is a sSubordinate or Noun Clause, being the Object of the reporting verb said.



There are five kinds of sentences:

A. Assertive,

B. Imperative

C. Optative

D. Interrogative

E. Exclamatory


For each, there are methods of turning Direct Narration into Indirect Narration and vice versa. 
A sentence which simply affirms or a denies  something is called an assertive sentence.
All assertive sentences are statements.
 (e.g., the train has arrived).
A sentence which expresses command or request is called an Imperative Sentence. 
(e.g., Go home)
A sentence which expresses just wish or Desire is called an optative sentence(e.g., may your life be happy). 
A sentence which asks a question is called an interrogative sentence(e.g., what's your name?). 
A sentence which expresses some feeling of the speaker while getting something, is called an exclamatory sentence(e.g., what a fool he is!). 


Hope this article will help you with your grammar problems
For the next part follow or subscribe us.

To be continued...... 




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Soumitra Parai

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I am soumitra Parai. I have a you tube channel and website where I teach English class for the students of class 10,11,12 of West Bengal board of higher secondary education. If you want to get notes from me then you can follow the website